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2 edition of use of a vanadium bath in measuring total neutron yields from accelerator sources. found in the catalog.

use of a vanadium bath in measuring total neutron yields from accelerator sources.

Muhammed Ashraf Atta

use of a vanadium bath in measuring total neutron yields from accelerator sources.

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Published by (n. pub.) in Birmingham .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D.)- University of Birmingham, Dept. of Physics, 1972.

ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL20792793M

VANADIUM. ii. DISCLAIMER. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the Public Health Service, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.   Measurements of Cross Sections for the (n,2n) Reaction of 58Ni, 93Nb, Ta and l97Au.- Study of Excitation Functions Around 14 MeV Neutron Energy.- Measurement of Average Cross Sections for cf Neutrons.- Measurement of Some Average Cross Sections for Cf Neutrons.- Integral Reaction Rate Measurements in Cf and U Fission Spectra


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use of a vanadium bath in measuring total neutron yields from accelerator sources. by Muhammed Ashraf Atta Download PDF EPUB FB2

A description is given of a collimated vanadium bath system which has been used to measure relative neutron flux in the keV energy region. The variati Cited by: 2. A continuous flow vanadium bath has been used to measure the neutron yield from different accelerator targets, and the correction factors which have to be applied are discussed.

The results of yield measurements for protons from 5 to 10 MeV on thick targets of Li, Be, Cu and Co are given and compared with calculated by: 4. The use of vanadium scattering to inter- allowing a free choice between cold and thermal neutron sources at all instrument positions.

Untagged gamma-ray and tagged-neutron yields from. Vanadium in serum has been investigated by the aid of neutron activation analysis (8 min irradiation at 8 ncm−2s−1 in the reactor FR-II of the Kernforschungszentrum in Karlsruhe). The lyophilized samples were dry-ashed before irradiation and the52V activity extracted after irradiation.

The values for V in the sera of 22 healthy males ranged from – ng Vml− by: Total neutron yield is 10 11 s -1 at 1 mA 2 MeV proton beam [17]. Neutron energy spectrum was measured by time-of-flight technique [18]. Readiness for boron neutron capture therap. The neutron generator is a Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF electromag-netic discharge ion source, RF deflection and a klystron bunching system [5].

The main specifications of the neutron generator are listed in Table 1. The chopping and bunching of the. Waiting time between each irradiation period was about 14–86 h.

Total and average neutron yields were × 10 18 neutrons and × 10 12 neutrons per second, respectively. In order to measure the short-lived radioactivities, 7 h, 25 and 10 min irradiations were also conducted.

The use of vanadium in powder metallurgy (PM) steels has so far been limited. A previous study demonstrated that by using a vanadium alloyed PM steel, the total alloying content could be reduced by 50 percent while maintaining similar or improved properties. Neutron Yield • The neutron yield (n/s) of a particular source can only be determined precisely by measurement Alpha Neutron Sources 16 • Yield values expressed as n/s/Ci are only estimates.

• The actual yield depends on the source construction and the beryllium - alpha emitter ratio. The total number of neutrons counted during a measurement will also depend on uninteresting factors, such as: the counting time the solid angle coverage of the detectors the efficiency of the detectors To correct for counting time we can either: 1) Divide the measured counts by the counts measured in an incident beam montior.

Many years ago, baths using vanadyl sulfate were in use, mainly for measuring the target yield from accelerator-based sources of neutrons where the shorter half-life is necessary to have a practical time resolution on the neutron output and only relative yield.

(c) Total angular momentum (spin) measurement and determination of branching ratio 2) He has some experiences in targetry, production and chemistry of Tl, 67Ga in addition to Pd and studying. 2 days ago  On a pulsed source, the vanadium measurement additionally gives the flux profile as a function of wavelength.

Hence, monitor-normalized data are divided by the vanadium measurement to correct for the incident flux profile and can also be used to set the neutron. The “manganese bath” technique has been perfected to measure the total number of use of a vanadium bath in measuring total neutron yields from accelerator sources.

book emitted when 23–80 MeV proton beams bombard a beryllium target. This measurement used liquid scintillator detectors to identify produced neutrons by Pulse Shape Discrimination and Time of Flight technique to measure neutron energy in the range MeV.

To extend the covered neutron energy range 3He detector was used to measure neutrons below MeV. The obtained yields were normalized to the charge. @article{osti_, title = {Radiochemical Analysis by Thermal Neutron Activation. Direct Determination of Vanadium in 18/8 Steel by Measurement of the Activity of Vanadium (Period of Minutes)}, author = {Haerdi, W and Martin, Ed and Monnier, D}, abstractNote = {The values ( and ppm) obtained by direct determination of V in activated 18/8 steel are much higher than those.

Vanadium-steel alloys are very tough and are used for armour plate, axles, tools, piston rods and crankshafts. Less than 1% of vanadium, and as little chromium, makes steel shock resistant and vibration resistant.

Vanadium alloys are used in nuclear reactors because of vanadium’s low neutron-absorbing properties. New developments indicate that higher energies or a deuteron beam might be useful to increase the neutron yield at constant accelerator power.

Here we present the total neutron yield analytically. The RIKEN compact neutron source and related neutron diffractometer were successfully upgraded for precise in-house texture measurement, as judged by comparison with two other well established neutron diffractometers.

This provides a good example for the technical development and the scientific application of neutron diffraction techniques based on compact neutron sources. for regulation of total generated power. In this paper we treat problem as an unknown input estima-tion problem and present results obtained with a nuclear rea c-tor which uses Vanadium (delayed-type) and Cobalt (prompt-type) SPNDs for u x measurement.

While the Vanadium SPND model is linear, the Cobalt SPND has a nonlinear model. exists as vanadium(IV) or vanadium(V) and these species have different toxic properties; therefore, determination of the vanadium species present in a sample can be more important than the total vanadium.

content of the sample in order to best evaluate. Measurement of dT-neutron yield by means of an auxiliary source of annihilation radiation.

Bukarev, V. Komissarov & A. Shtan' Soviet Atomic Energy vol pages –. The total delayed neutron yield from /sup /U was calculated as a function of the energy of the neutron inducing fission. The calculations (based on fission data and fission systematics) extend from thermal to MeV neutron energies.

This test method covers the determination of dissolved and total recoverable vanadium in most waters and wastewater by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

The optimum range of this test method is 10 to μg/L of vanadium based on a μL sample size. Primary project technical highlights Size, grade, & unrivalled quality NI vanadium resource Mt @ % V 2 O 5 inferredmillion lbs *% V.

A miniature deuterium-tritium accelerator generates fast neutrons that result in gamma rays produced from 12 C. The model assumes that total body carbon is distributed to a certain percent in fat, protein, glycogen, and bone ash. Using the measurement of total body carbon, nitrogen, and calcium, total body fat can be estimated.

@article{osti_, title = {Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys}, author = {Braski, D N}, abstractNote = {Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels.

Abstract: The design of a low-power prototype of neutron amplifier recently proposed within the INFN-E project indicated the need for more accurate called for detailed data on the neutron yield produced by a proton beam with energy of about 70 MeV impinging on a thick Beryllium target.

Such measurement was performed at the LNS superconducting cyclotron, covering a wide angular. Electron affinities are more difficult to measure than ionization energies. An atom of Vanadium in the gas phase, for example, gives off energy when it gains an electron to form an ion of Vanadium.

V + e – → V – – ∆H = Affinity = kJ/mol. To use electron affinities properly, it is essential to keep track of sign. Vanadium alloys are used in nuclear reactors because of vanadium’s low neutron-absorbing properties; Vanadium(V) oxide is used as a pigment for ceramics and glass, as a catalyst and in producing superconducting magnets; Vanadium is a silvery transition metal element; Vanadium is essential to some species, including humans; Telephone: +44 (0.

The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also.

Vanadium uses: Alloys. As mentioned, most vanadium produced today is used to make alloys. In fact, current estimates indicate that about 90 percent of vanadium is used to make ferrovanadium, an.

The unit of measure for mass is the atomic mass unit (amu).One atomic mass unit is equal to x grams. One unified atomic mass unit is approximately the mass of one nucleon (either a single proton or neutron) and is numerically equivalent to 1 g/mol.

For 12 C the atomic mass is exactly 12u, since the atomic mass unit is defined from it. For other isotopes, the isotopic mass usually. Vanadium (IPA: /vəˈneɪdiəm/) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol V and atomic number A rare, soft and ductile element, vanadium is found combined in certain minerals and is used mainly to produce certain alloys.

It is one of the 26 elements commonly found in living things. Contents[show] Notable characteristics Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey.

@article{osti_, title = {Measurement of high energy neutrons via Lu(n,xn) reactions}, author = {Henry, E.A. and Becker, J.A. and Archer, D.E. and Younes, W. and Stoyer, M.A. and Slaughter, D.}, abstractNote = {High energy neutrons can be assayed by the use of the nuclear diagnostic material lutetium.

We are measuring the (n,xn) cross sections for natural lutetium in order to develop it. Unfortunately, this book can't be printed from the OpenBook. If you need to print pages from this book, we recommend downloading it as a PDF. Visit to get more information about this book, to buy it in print, or to download it as a free PDF.

The following uses for vanadium are gathered from a number of sources as well as from anecdotal comments.

I would be delighted to receive corrections as well as additional referenced uses. Vanadium metal is important in a number of areas. Its structural strength and neutron cross section properties makes it useful in nuclear applications.

Vanadium alloys are also used in nuclear reactors because vanadium has low neutron-adsorption abilities and it doesn not deform in creeping under high temperatures.

Vanadium oxide (V 2 O 5) is used as a catalyst in manufacturing sulfuric acid and maleic anhydride and in making ceramics.

It is added to glass to produce green or blue tint. Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number It is a hard, silvery-grey, malleable transition elemental metal is rarely found in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer (passivation) somewhat stabilizes the free metal against further oxidation.

Andrés Manuel del Río discovered compounds of vanadium in in Mexico by. Measuring those neutrons can indicate the bomb yield directly. However, many fast neutrons can be greatly degraded in energy by materials in the bomb, such as the metal in the casing of the Hiroshima bomb, and by the environment, such as high-explosive gases in the Nagasaki bomb.

DS86 relies on calculations of neutron and gamma-ray fluence and. Vanadium is the first element in the fifth column of the periodic table. It is classified as a transition metal. Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and 23 protons. There are 28 neutrons in the most abundant isotope.

Characteristics and Properties Under standard conditions vanadium is a .of incident neutrons would have to be restricted to very small ranges. This is outside the scope of our experiment. In order to characterize the cross section of this resonance region, we use the resonance integral.

This is the total integral of the cross section over the entire epithermal neutron energy range.Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5) Vanadyl sulfate (VOSO 4) Vanadium(IV) chloride (VCl 4) Interesting facts: It is never found free in nature, but it can be found in 65 different minerals. It is a trace mineral needed by the human body in very small amounts.

Researchers believe that vanadium can prevent cholesterol forming in the blood vessels.